Early diagnosis and prevention of diabetes 2

The prevalence of diabetes 2 is globally increasing and especially increasing with social inequality in health in relation to work and living conditions. There is a significant underreporting and the true prevalence is not known. The intention is to utilize the one- or two-year mandatory health examinations in these groups to include tests for diabetes 2 with Hb1Ac strategically selected samples in the first step to identify the true prevalence of the agegroups and professional group Then in Step 2 the aim is inspire shareholders to optimise the working and living conditions for seafarers with diabetes to keep them healthy and workable the whole life.  

The actual prevalence of T2D in seafarers and fishers is unknown and the program starts with collecting Hb1Ac prevalence data in the Spanish ISM maritime clinics in Tarragona, Barcelona, Social Security clinics in Panamá and in the "CENDIATRA" maritime clinics in Colombia.  


To establish early diagnosis and prevention of diabetes 2 among employees in jobs with inequality in occupational health and mandatory health examinations. The prevention includes arranging the work routines and the design of the workplaces so that employees with Diabetes 2 can continue their job with due consideration keeping their Diabetes 2 in well-treated status.

Study design 

Cross-sectional study using data collected in the occupational health clinics and maritime health clinics. The data collection stops when 200 participants in each clinic is collected.



Inclusion criteria

Seafarers, fishermen and other workers, coming to obligatory health examinations are invited randomly irrespective of their risk status.


Place, age, gender, seafarer-fisherman-other workers, nationality.

Laboratory data

HbA1c, height, weight, 


A diagnosis for diabetes can be made if the HbA1c level is ≥6.5% or FPG >  126 mg/dl or higher

Personal prevention

Simple lifestyle measures have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes.


Prevention in supportive environments

Effective personal prevention is not possible without a supportive environment made by the shareholders' working together to establish the needed conditions for good health practices for employees with Diabetes and others with risk for chronic diaseases like overweight. Empolyees on board the ships or working on shore should have time and allowance for sufficient work breaks, restroom visits, access to low calory healthy meals in social company, and access to do physical activities. Analysis and suggestions on how it can be made optimal for the specific workplaces is part of the project. Structural change with attractive place for lunch with colleagues and clean restrooms. The big workplaces like in the merchant fleet, need fitness rooms and cooks that make healthy and cheap food in the cafeteria for diabetic persons and all others with the risk for obesity and other chronic diseases.